Analysis 27 Dec 12

Turbulent Year for Balkan’s Transitional Justice

With four verdicts passed this year the ICTY brought justice to some ex-Yugoslav states, while some say that already endangered regional cooperation touched new low.

Marija Ristic

The year started promisingly for the Croatia – Serbia relations, as the newly formed socialist government in Croatia announced the possible withdrawal of the genocide lawsuit against Serbia, which was filed before the International Court of Justice in 1999. 

In the second month of the year both Serbian and Croatian presidents gave their backing for the three-state agreement on joint prosecution of war crimes, but Bosnia did not sign the document as its tripartite presidency was unable to agree on it unanimously.

However, after a year of delay Serbia and Bosnia will sign the protocol on prosecution of war crimes in January 2013, while the accord between Croatia and Bosnia is yet to be agreed.

Nikolic’s Election Affects Regional Cooperation

The improvements in the regional cooperation came to a halt in May with the election of the new Serbian president, Tomislav Nikolic, the former leader of the nationalistic Progressive party.

Bearing in mind his troubled war past, as Nikolic was one of the comrades of Vojislav Seselj, the leader of the Serbian Radical Party who is currently on trial for war crimes at the Hague Tribunal, the countries in the region were sceptical about Serbia’s choice of the new president.

Nikolic sparked controversy shortly after his election when he stated that the Croatian town of Vukovar, scene of some of the fiercest fighting during the Croatian war, is “a Serbian town” and that a "greater Serbia" was his "unrealised dream".  The Croatian officials described the statements as “shocking and absolutely unacceptable for Croatia.”

"If Mr Nikolic's statement means a return to the ideas of the nineties, I can say in the name of all Croatian citizens that those ideas will not be realised," said the Croatian President, Ivo Josipovic.

And yet, Nikolic did not stop at Croatia, but continued to provoke both the EU and regional leaders, stating that war crimes committed in 1995 in Srebrenica are not genocide, but a mass crime committed by individuals.

Speaking to the Montenegrin state television on May 31, he said: “There was no genocide in Srebrenica… No one has proved it so far. One officer has been convicted and now all those that were in cooperation with him will be convicted as well. But it is hard to tell that there was an intention [of genocide]."

The Bosniak member of the Bosnian Presidency, Bakir Izetbegovic, accused Nikolic of irrevocably harming the relations between Bosnia and Serbia and offending victims, while EU officials slammed Serbia for rewriting history. 

The European Union said then that it is expected that all leaders in the Balkans should admit what happened during the 1990s war in the former Yugoslavia and that should acknowledge the verdicts of international courts which ruled that genocide took place in Srebrenica.

Serbian human rights activists also accused Nikolic for endangering regional cooperation between Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia, which according to their annual report is at its lowest level since 2000.

Legal Wrap-ups

As almost all the countries of the Western Balkans are on their way towards EU membership, the year was marked with a number of changes to countries’ legislations and legal systems.

Montenegro started its accession negotiations with the screening of its preparedness for the opening of the Chapter 23, on Judiciary and Fundamental Rights, and the Chapter 24, on Justice, Freedom and Security.

The most dramatic change took place in Macedonia where lustration process was introduced. Macedonia has followed in the steps of many former Communist states that have enacted lustration laws as a way to address past injustices stemming from politically motivated judicial proceedings by exposing former police collaborators who snitched on people.

Macedonians established the Lustration Commission, the state office tasked with carrying out the process, which was often a subject of criticisms that it “has become the government’s instrument for the tendentious and selective stigmatization”.

Originally passed in 2008, Macedonia’s Lustration law stirred wide public controversy, with critics and opposition members accusing the government of Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski of misusing it as a witch hunt against its opponents and critics.

Macedonia’s parliament passed a new lustration law in June, after the Constitutional Court scrapped many key provisions from the 2008 law, narrowing its time span and the range of professions subjected to checks.

However, the new law and the government’s insistence that it only wants to see past injustices amended has not silenced criticism.

Macedonia’s Helsinki Committee for Human Rights has contested key provisions of the law before the Constitutional Court, arguing that they are largely the same as those previously scrapped.

A group of intellectuals, meanwhile, sued legislators from the ruling parties and Macedonian President Gjorgje Ivanov for voting and approving provisions in the new law that were previously struck down as unconstitutional.

The ICTY Rulings

In May this year, the trial of one of the most wanted ICTY fugitives, Ratko Mladic, has started before the Hague Tribunal.

The initial hearing started on May 16, but the actual trial started on July 9 with the witness testimony which has been delayed several times in the long-awaited trial due to problems with disclosure of evidence to the defence.

Mladic, the former commander of the Bosnian Serb army, who was arrested in May last year, pleaded not guilty to charges of genocide, crimes against humanity and violations of the laws and customs of war during the Bosnian conflict between 1992 and 1995.

Second half of the year was marked with the four ICTY verdicts, which caused opposed reactions in the states of former Yugoslavia- they were either welcomed or harshly criticized.

On November 16, the Hague Tribunal quashed the 2011 first-instance verdict that jailed two Croatian generals Ante Gotovina and Mladen Markac, for 24 and 18 years, respectively, for crimes against Serb civilians during the Croatian military operation "Oluja" ["Storm"] in the summer of 1995.

Serbian officials condemned the acquittals, accusing the Hague Tribunal of undermining its own credibility and offending the victims, while in Croatia generals got hero welcome.

Meanwhile, Vuk Jeremic, the Serbian president of the UN General Assembly, took the battle to a higher level, scheduling a UN debate on the whole issue of UN tribunals in April.

At the same time, Serbia is preparing for a hearing before the International Court of Justice, ICJ, scheduled for February 2014 to prove its claim that the Croats committed genocide against the Serbs in Operation Storm, when around 200,000 Serbs fled Croatia.

On November 29, the ICTY acquitted three former Kosovo Liberation Army, KLA, commanders for war crimes committed in Kosovo in the late 1990s.

Kosovo’s former PM Ramush Haradinaj, who was among the defendants, returned to Kosovo as free men to a rapturous welcome, while Serbia, on the other hand, has expressed anger at the verdict.

Despite the announcements that the verdict can endanger Serbia-Kosovo dialogue and Serbia’s path towards the EU, the country’s top leadership continued negotiations with Kosovo. On the other side, Kosovars expect Haradinaj to return to politics and gain top Kosovo government positions.

The acquittals of Kosovo’s Ramush Haradinaj and Croatia’s Ante Gotovina and Mladen Markac  provided hope for many Macedonians that Johan Tarculovski, the only Macedonian national convicted for war crimes by the Hague Tribunal, could soon be released.

Tarculovski, a former police officer, has already served eight of a 12-year sentence for committing war crimes against civilians during the 2001 armed conflict between Macedonians and ethnic Albanians. In March 2013, after serving two-thirds of his sentence, he will be eligible to appeal for an early release.

In December the ICTY rulings brought life imprisonments for two Bosnian Serb leaders.

On December 4, the Appeals Chamber of the Hague Tribunal has upheld the first instance verdict which sentenced Milan Lukic to life imprisonment and partly accepted the appeal of his cousin, Sredoje Lukic, and reduced his sentence from 30 to 27 years.

Eight days later, Zdravko Tolimir, a close wartime aide to the former Bosnian Serb army chief, Ratko Mladic, has been found guilty of the Srebenica and Zepa genocide and sentenced to life imprisonment.

Despite the harsh criticism of its work, the United Nations has extended the mandate of the Hague Tribunal judges until the end of 2014 in order to finish on-going cases.

In its resolution adopted on December 17, the UN has requested that the ICTY take "all possible measures to complete its work as expeditiously as possible to facilitate its closure by 31 December 2014,” and to present a completion strategy by 15 April 2013, which will enable closure and transition to the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals.

The Residual Mechanism was set by the UN in 2010 aiming to finish the remaining tasks of the ICTY once its mandate expire and according to the current plans it is scheduled to begin on July 1, 2013.

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