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Serbia

The Latest Facts and Figures on Serbia

Background:Flag of the Republic of Serbia

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929.

Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germany's occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders.

The military and political movement headed by Josip "Tito" Broz (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945.

Although Communist, Tito's new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades.

In 1989, Slobodan Milosevic became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines.

In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under Milosevic's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia."

These actions were ultimately unsuccessful and led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. Milosevic retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo.

The Milosevic government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999, to the withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999, and to the stationing of a NATO-led force in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the region's ethnic communities.

FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of Milosevic and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics.

Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosovo in January 2006.

In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro.

In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, the UN-administered province of Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize.

At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence.

In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo.

Geography:

Location:
Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary

Geographic coordinates:
44 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
total: 77,474 sq km
country comparison to the world: 116
land: 77,474 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 2,026 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Kosovo 352 km, Macedonia 62 km, Montenegro 124 km, Romania 476 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
Current Weather
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)

Terrain:
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: NA
highest point: Midzor 2,169 m

Natural resources:
oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land

Land use:
arable land: NA
permanent crops: NA
other: NA

Irrigated land:
NA

Total renewable water resources:
208.5 cu km (note - includes Kosovo) (2003)

Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East

People:

Population:
7,276,604 (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
note: does not include the population of Kosovo

Age structure:

0-14 years: 15.1% (male 567,757/female 532,604)
15-64 years: 68.5% (male 2,503,490/female 2,500,949)
65 years and over: 16.5% (male 493,436/female 712,319) (2011 est.)

Median age:

total: 41.3 years
male: 39.6 years
female: 43.1 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.464% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 218

Birth rate:

9.17 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205

Death rate:

13.81 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104

Urbanization:

urban population: 56% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.065 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and above: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 170
male: 7.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.56 years
country comparison to the world: 101
male: 71.71 years
female: 77.58 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.4 children born/woman (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

6,400 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne disease: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Nationality:

noun: Serb(s)
adjective: Serbian
Ethnic groups:
Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census)

Religions:

Serbian Orthodox 85%, Catholic 5.5%, Protestant 1.1%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or atheist 2.6% (2002 census)

Languages:

Serbian 88.3% (official), Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9% (2002 census)
note: Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Croatian all official in Vojvodina

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.9%
female: 94.1% (2003 census)
note: includes Montenegro

Education expenditures:
NA

Government:

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
conventional short form: Serbia
local long form: Republika Srbija
local short form: Srbija
former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia

Government type:
republic

Capital:
name: Belgrade (Beograd)
geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

167 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina)
Serbia Proper: Belgrade City (Beograd): Barajevo, Cukarica, Grocka, Lazarevac, Mladenovac, Novi Beograd, Obrenovac, Palilula, Rakovica, Savski Venac, Sopot, Stari Grad, Surcin, Vozdovac, Vracar, Zemun, Zvezdara; Bor: Bor, Kladovo, Majdanpek, Negotin; Branicevo: Golubac, Kucevo, Malo Crnice, Petrovac, Pozarevac, Veliko Gradiste, Zabari, Zagubica; Grad Nis: Crveni Krst, Mediana, Niska Banja, Palilula, Pantelej Jablanica: Bojnik, Crna Trava, Lebane, Leskovac, Medveda, Vlasotince; Kolubara: Lajkovac, Ljig, Mionica, Osecina, Ub, Valjevo; Macva: Bogatic, Koceljeva, Krupanj, Ljubovija, Loznica, Mali Zvornik, Sabac, Vladimirci; Moravica: Cacak, Gornkji Milanovac, Ivanjica, Lucani; Nisava: Aleksinac, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Merosina, Nis, Razanj, Svrljig; Pcinja: Bosilegrad, Bujanovac, Presevo, Surdulica, Trgoviste, Vladicin Han, Vranje; Pirot: Babusnica, Bela Palanka, Dimitrovgrad, Pirot; Podunavlje: Smederevo, Smederevskia Palanka, Velika Plana; Pomoravlje: Cuprija, Despotovac, Jagodina, Paracin, Rekovac, Svilajnac; Rasina: Aleksandrovac, Brus, Cicevac, Krusevac, Trstenik, Varvarin; Raska: Kraljevo, Novi Pazar, Raska, Tutin, Vrnjacka Banja; Sumadija: Arandelovac, Batocina, Knic, Kragujevac, Lapovo, Raca, Topola; Toplica: Blace, Kursumlija, Prokuplje, Zitorada; Zajecar: Boljevac, Knjazevac, Sokobanja, Zajecar; Zlatibor: Arilje, Bajina Basta, Cajetina, Kosjeric, Nova Varos, Pozega, Priboj, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Uzice
Vojvodina Autonomous Province: South Backa: Bac, Backa Palanka, Backi Petrovac, Becej, Beocin, Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci, Srobobran, Temerin, Titel, Vrbas, Zabalj; South Banat: Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Kovacica, Kovin, Opovo, Pancevo, Plandiste, Vrsac; North Backa: Backa Topola, Mali Idjos, Subotica; North Banat: Ada, Coka, Kanjiza, Kikinda, Novi Knezevac, Senta; Central Banat: Nova Crnja, Novi Becej, Secanj, Zitiste, Zrenjanin; Srem: Indija, Irig, Pecinci, Ruma, Sid, Sremska Mitrovica, Stara Pazova; West Backa: Apatin, Kula, Odzaci, Sombor

Independence:
5 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)

National holiday:
National Day, 15 February

Constitution:
adopted 8 November 2006; effective 10 November 2006

Legal system:
based on civil law system

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Tomislav NIKOLIC (since 31 May 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Ivica DACIC (since 23 July 2012)
cabinet: Republican Ministries act as cabinet
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
election results: Tomislav NIKOLIC elected president in runoff election; NIKOLIC 51.2% of the vote, Boris TADIC 48.8% of the vote

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly (250 seats; deputies elected according to party lists to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held by May 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party - Let's Get Serbia Moving 24.04%, Choice for a Better Life 22.11%, SPS/PUPS/US 14.53%, DS 7.00%, Turnover 6.52%, United Regions of Serbia 5.49%, Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians 1.77%, other 18.54%; seats by party - Let's Get Serbia Moving 73, Choice for a Better Life 67, SPS/PUPS/US 44, DS 21, Turnover 19, United Regions of Serbia 16, Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians 5, other 5
note: current composition - For European Serbia coalition 78, SRS 57, United Region of Serbia 24, Forward Serbia 21, DS 20, SPS-JS 15, LDP 12, NS 9, PUPS 5, others 9


Judicial branch:
courts of general jurisdiction (municipal courts, district courts, Appellate Courts, the Supreme Court of Cassation); courts of special jurisdiction (commercial courts, the High Commercial Court, the High Magistrates Court, the Administrative Court)

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or VMSZ [Istvan PASTOR]; Bosniak Democratic Party of Sandzak or BDSS [Esad DZUDZEVIC]; Choice for a Better Life (includes the DS) [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina Croats or DSHV; Democratic Left of the Roma; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Party of Sandzak or SDP; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; G17 Plus/United Regions of Serbia or G17/URS [Mladjan DINKIC]; Let's Get Serbia Going [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Movement of Veterans of Serbia; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Party of Democratic Action or PVD [Riza HALIMI]; Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Jovan KRKOBABIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ (currently on trial at The Hague), with Dragan TODOROVIC as acting leader]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]; Social Democratic League of Vojvodina or LSV; Social Democratic Union or SDU; Social Liberal Party of Sandzak or SLPS; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; Turnover or U-turn [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; United Regions of Serbia [Mladan DINKIC]; United Serbia or JS [Dragan "Palma" MARKOVIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization); 1389 (Serbian national movement); Dveri (Movement for the Life of Serbia)

International organization participation:
BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Flag description:
three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slavic colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white bicephalic eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; a white Cyrillic "C" in each quarter stands for the phrase "Only Unity Saves the Serbs"; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms

Economy:

Economy - overview:

Serbia has a transitional economy mostly dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains large and many institutional reforms are needed. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investment. MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Serbia has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, but many large enterprises - including the power utilities, telecommunications company, natural gas company, national air carrier, and others - remain in state hands. Serbia has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010, but a decision on candidate status has been postponed to 2012. Serbia is also pursuing membership in the World Trade Organization, and accession negotiations are at an advanced stage. Structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term prosperity have largely stalled since the onset of the global financial crisis. Serbia, however, is slowly recovering from the crisis. Economic growth in 2011 was 2.0%, following a modest 1.0% increase in 2010 and a 3.5% contraction in 2009. High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Serbia signed a new $1.3 billion Precautionary Stand By Arrangement with the IMF in September 2011 that was set to expire in March 2013, but the program was frozen in early 2012 because the 2012 budget approved by parliament deviates from the program parameters. Growing deficits constrain the use of stimulus efforts to revive the economy, while Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy. Serbia adopted a new long-term economic growth plan in 2010 that calls for a quadrupling of exports over ten years and heavy investments in basic infrastructure. Since the plan was adopted, Serbia has increased its exports significantly. Major challenges ahead include: high unemployment rates and the need for job creation; high government expenditures for salaries, pensions and unemployment benefits; a growing need for new government borrowing; rising public and private foreign debt; attracting new foreign direct investment; and getting the IMF program back on track. Other serious challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia's economic growth include a strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, free trade agreements with the EU, Russia, Turkey, and Central European Free Trade agreement countries; and a generous package of incentives for foreign investments.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$78.86 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
$77.32 billion (2010 est.)
$76.6 billion (2009 est.)
note:data are in 2011 US dollars
 
GDP (official exchange rate):

$46.11 billion (2011 est.)
 
GDP - real growth rate:

2% (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 157

1% (2010 est.)

-3.5% (2009 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$10,700 (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
$10,500 (2010 est.)
$10,400 (2009 est.)
note:data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 12.3%

 industry: 22.5%

 services: 65.2% (2011 est.)

Labor force:

2.92 million (November 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 21.9%

 industry: 19.5%

 services: 58.6% (2010)

Unemployment rate:

23.7% (November 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
19.2% (2010 est.)

Population below poverty line:

8.8% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

28.2 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 123
30 (2003)

Investment (gross fixed):

18.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141

Budget:

revenues: $17.57 billion

expenditures: $19.55 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

40% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-4.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140

Public debt:

41% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
42.9% of GDP (2010 est.)

note:data cover general Government Debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment. Debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

7% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
6.3% (2010 est.)
 
Central bank discount rate:

9.75% (15 December 2011)
country comparison to the world: 18
12% (17 January 2011)
 
Commercial bank prime lending rate:

14.4% (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
12.43% (31 December 2010 est.)
 
Stock of narrow money:

$3.61 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
$3.195 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money:

$18.89 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
$17.16 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$22.81 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
$21.79 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$12.37 billion (24 January 2011)
country comparison to the world: 67
$11.52 billion (31 December 2009), $12.17 billion (31 December 2008)
 
Agriculture - products:

wheat, maize, sugar beets, sunflower, raspberries; beef, pork, milk
 
Industries:

base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate:

2.1% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123

Electricity - production:

36.06 billion kWh (2011)
country comparison to the world: 60

Electricity - consumption:

35.5 billion kWh (2011)
country comparison to the world: 56

Electricity - exports:

2.017 billion kWh (2011 est.)

Electricity - imports:

1.9 billion kWh (2011)

Oil - production:

22,730 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74

Oil - consumption:

50,280 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Oil - exports:

11,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Oil - imports:

27,330 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105

Oil - proved reserves:

77.5 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76

Natural gas - production:

517 million cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71

Natural gas - consumption:

2.51 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165

Natural gas - imports:

2.15 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47

Natural gas - proved reserves:

48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Current account balance:

-$3.23 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
-$2.44 billion (2010 est.)
 
Exports:

$11.77 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
$9.809 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities:

iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition
 
Exports - partners:

Germany 11.3%, Italy 11.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 10.1%, Montenegro 7.6%, Romania 6.9%, Russia 6.7%, Slovenia 4.5%, Macedonia 4.4% (2011 est.)
 
Imports:

$20.13 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
$16.73 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - partners:

Russia 13.2%, Germany 10.8%, Italy 8.9%, China 7.6%, Hungary 4.6% (2011 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$16.85 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
$15.19 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
 
Debt - external:

$31.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
$33.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$25.42 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
$11.95 billion (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$NA

Exchange rates:

Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -
72.46 (2011 est.) 78.576 (2010 est.), 67.634 (2009), 62.9 (2008), 54.5 (2007)

Communications:

Telephones - main lines in use:
3.085 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 50

Telephones - mobile cellular:
9.619 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 61

Telephone system:
general assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war has resulted in a modern telecommunications system more than 95% digitalized in 2009
domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 3G mobile network launched in 2007
international: country code - 381 (2009)

Radio broadcast stations:
308 (station frequency types NA) (2009)

Television broadcast stations:
138 (2009)

Internet country code:
.rs

Internet hosts:
1.102 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 44

Internet users:
4.107 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 57

Transportation:

Airports:
29 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 117

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 8 (2010)

Heliports:
2 (2010)

Railways:
total: 3,379 km
country comparison to the world: 52
standard gauge: 3,379 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 1,196 km) (2010)

Roadways:
total: 41,913 km
country comparison to the world: 87
paved: 26,007 km
unpaved: 15,906 km (2009)

Waterways:
587 km (primarily on Danube and Sava rivers) (2009)
country comparison to the world: 81

Military:

Military branches:
Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces Command (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces Command (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished effective December 2010; service obligation - 6 months, with reserve obligation to age 60 for men and age 50 for women (2011)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,395,426
females age 16-49: 1,356,415 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 43,945
female: 41,080 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues:

Disputes - international:
Serbia with several other states protest the U.S. and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaring itself as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 71,111 (Croatia); 27,414 (Bosnia and Herzegovina); 206,000 (Kosovo), note - mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999 (2007)

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering

Source: Central Intelligence Agency`s World Factbook

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