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Chiuariu, who became minister of justice earlier this year, announced his intention to step down on Sunday, two days after President Traian Basescu had publicly asked for his removal.
Explaining his resignation, Chiuariu denied any wrongdoing, and said he did not want political disputes to affect the activity and credibility of his ministry.
"But I promise you, Mr President, that when this ridiculous attempt to set me up is over, I will come back to continue the reform of the justice system", he said.
Last week Basescu asked the government to sack two ministers who may be investigated for graft.
Anti-corruption prosecutors have said that, in addition to Chiuariu, they want to investigate the Minister of Labour, Paul Pacuraru, but they require authorisation from the president to launch criminal probes against members of the government.
Investigations of senior public officials and former ministers must be approved by the president.
Prosecutors say Chiuariu abused his position when real estate owned by the national post office was sold in April to a private company reported to be linked to the ruling Liberal Party, of which Chiuariu is a member.
In October, Agriculture Minister Decebal Traian Remes stepped down following the launch of a criminal investigation against him for alleged corruption. Remes, a member of the governing Liberal Party, resigned for allegedly receiving around €15,500 on behalf of a businessman.
According to Transparency International’s corruption perception index, despite some progress made since 2004, Romania remains the most corrupt country in the EU.
In two high-profile war crimes trials currently ongoing in Pristina, a series of witnesses have retracted previous statements alleging abuse at Kosovo Liberation Army detention centres.