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Background 29 Sep 10

Albania

The Latest Facts and Figures on Albania

CIA World Factbook

Flag of the Republic of AlbaniaBackground:
Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, but was conquered by Italy in 1939. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944. Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960), and then with China (to 1978). In the early 1990s, Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated physical infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997; however, there have been claims of electoral fraud in every one of Albania's post-communist elections. The 2009 general elections resulted in no single party gaining a majority of the 140 seats in Parliament, and the Movement for Socialist Integration (LSI) and the Democratic Party (DP) combined to form a coalition government, the first such in Albania's history. The Socialist Party (SP) contested the results of the 2009 parliamentary elections and the 2011 local elections. Albania joined NATO in April 2009 and is a potential candidate for EU accession. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure.

Geography:

Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece in the south and Montenegro and Kosovo to the north
Geographic coordinates:41 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references: Europe

Area:                                                                                                                                                              total: 28,748 sq km
country comparison to the world: 144
land: 27,398 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km

Area - comparative:                                                                                                                               slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:                                                                                                                                       total: 717 km
border countries:                                                                                                                                   Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Montenegro 172 km, Kosovo 112 km

Coastline:                                                                                                                                                362 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
Current Weather
mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain:                                                                                                                                               mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 20.1%
permanent crops: 4.21%
other: 75.69% (2005)

Irrigated land:
3,530 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
41.7 cu km (2001)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 1.71 cu km/yr (27%/11%/62%)
per capita: 546 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

People:

Nationality:
noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups:

Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb, Macedonian, Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Languages:
Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects
Religions:
Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Population:
3,002,859 (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21.4% (male 337,364/female 303,669)
15-64 years: 68.1% (male 996,666/female 1,043,472)
65 years and over: 10.5% (male 148,151/female 165,345) (2011 est.)

Median age:
total: 30.4 years
male: 29.2 years
female: 31.6 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.28% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167

Birth rate:
12.38 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

Death rate:
6.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

Net migration rate:
-3.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178

Urbanization:
urban population: 52% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population:
TIRANA (capital) 433,000 (2009)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
31 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 110

Infant mortality rate:
total: 14.12 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 124
male: 15.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.59 years
country comparison to the world: 61
male: 74.99 years
female: 80.49 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.48 children born/woman (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188

Health expenditures:
6.9% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 84

Physicians density:
1.146 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
country comparison to the world: 97

Hospital bed density:
2.92 beds/1,000 population (2007)
country comparison to the world: 78

Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 98% of population
total: 97% of population

unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 2% of population
total: 3% of population (2008)

Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 98% of population
total: 98% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 2% of population
total: 2% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
6.6% (2005)
country comparison to the world: 75

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
definition: age 9 and over can read and write
total population: 98.7%
male: 99.2%
female: 98.3% (2001 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2004)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 35.5%
country comparison to the world: 10
male: 41.6%
female: 27.1% (2001)

Government


Country name:Albania
conventional long form: Republic of Albania
conventional short form: Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
local short form: Shqiperia
former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Capital:
name: Tirana (Tirane)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 19 49 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Berat, Diber, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Korce, Kukes, Lezhe, Shkoder, Tirane, Vlore

Independence:
28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 November (1912) also known as Flag Day

Constitution:
approved by parliament 21 October 1998; adopted by popular referendum 22 November 1998; promulgated 28 November 1998

Legal system:
civil law system except in the northern rural areas where customary law known as the "Code of Leke" prevails
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Republic Bamir TOPI (since 24 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 September 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by parliament
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by three-fifths the Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); four election rounds held between 8 and 20 July 2007 (next election to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Bamir TOPI elected president; Assembly vote, fourth round (three-fifths majority, 84 votes, required): Bamir TOPI 85 votes, Neritan CEKA 5 votes

Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 deputies elected throuhg political party name lists of  according to their respective order in a proportional system in 12 electoral zones; elected for a 4-year term)
elections: last held on 28 June 2009 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PD 68, PS 65, LSI 4, other 3

Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court consists of 9 members appointed by the president with the consent of the Assembly who serve 9-year terms (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term); the High Court members appointed by the president with the consent of the Assembly for a 9-year term; note - there are also courts of appeal and courts of first instance

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; New Democracy Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party for Justice and Integration or PDI [Shpetim IDRIZ]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party or PDS [Paskel MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vangjel DULE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Red and Black Alliance [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement [Elton KACIDHJA]; Omonia [Vasil BOLLANO]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
International organization participation:
BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gilbert GALANXHI
chancery: S1312 18th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alexander ARVIZU
embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana
mailing address: US Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510
telephone: [355] (4) 2247285
FAX: [355] (4) 2232222

Flag description:
red with a black two-headed eagle in the center; the design is claimed to be that of 15th-century hero George Castriota SKANDERBEG, who led a successful uprising against the Turks that resulted in a short-lived independence for some Albanian regions (1443-1478); an unsubstantiated explanation for the eagle symbol is the tradition that Albanians see themselves as descendants of the eagle; they refer to themselves as "Shkypetars," which translates as "sons of the eagle"

National symbol(s):
double-headed eagle
National anthem:
name: "Hymni i Flamurit" (Hymn to the Flag)
lyrics/music: Aleksander Stavre DRENOVA/Ciprian PORUMBESCU
note: adopted 1912

Economy - overview:
Albania, a formerly closed, centrally-planned state, is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. Macroeconomic growth averaged around 6% between 2004-08, but declined to about 3% in 2009-11. Inflation is low and stable. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime, and recently adopted a fiscal reform package aimed at reducing the large gray economy and attracting foreign investment. Remittances, a significant catalyst for economic growth declined from 12-15% of GDP before the 2008 financial crisis to 8% of GDP in 2010, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy. The agricultural sector, which accounts for almost half of employment but only about one-fifth of GDP, is limited primarily to small family operations and subsistence farming because of lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land. Energy shortages because of a reliance on hydropower - 98% of the electrical power produced in Albania - and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure contribute to Albania's poor business environment and lack of success in attracting new foreign investment needed to expand the country's export base. FDI is among the lowest in the region, but the government has embarked on an ambitious program to improve the business climate through fiscal and legislative reforms. The completion of a new thermal power plant near Vlore has helped diversify generation capacity, and plans to upgrade transmission lines between Albania and Montenegro and Kosovo would help relieve the energy shortages. Also, with help from EU funds, the government is taking steps to improve the poor national road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth. The country will continue to face challenges from increasing public debt, approaching its statutory limit of 60% of GDP. Strong trade, remittance, and banking sector ties with Greece and Italy make Albania vulnerable to spillover effects of the global financial crisis.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$24.99 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
$24.38 billion (2010 est.)
$23.56 billion (2009 est.)
note: data are in 2011 US dollars
Albania has an informal, and unreported, sector that may be as large as 50% of official GDP
GDP (official exchange rate):
$13.3 billion (2011 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.5% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
3.5% (2010 est.)
3.3% (2009 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$7,800 (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
$7,600 (2010 est.)
$7,400 (2009 est.)
note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20.2%
industry: 19.5%
services: 60.3% (2011 est.)

Labor force:
1.053 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 47.8%
industry: 23%
services: 29.2% (September 2010 est.)

Unemployment rate:
13.4% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
13.7% (2010 est.)
note: these are official rates, but actual rates may exceed 30% due to preponderance of near-subsistence farming

Population below poverty line:
12.5% (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 29% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
34.5 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 91
26.7 (2005)

Investment (gross fixed):
31% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Budget:
revenues: $3.405 billion
expenditures: $3.87 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
25.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113

Public debt:
59.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
57.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.9% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
3.5% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
5% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
5.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13.2% (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
12.833% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$2.741 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
$2.648 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$6.37 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
$9.426 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$8.506 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
$7.948 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products

Industries:
food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals,hydropower

Industrial production growth rate:
3% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107

Electricity - production:
5.201 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113

Electricity - consumption:
6.593 billion kWh
country comparison to the world: 101
note: 35% of electricity is lost in the system as a result of transmission inefficiencies and theft (2009 est.)

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports:
1.884 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production:
10,930 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Oil - consumption:
33,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Oil - exports:
1,004 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Oil - imports:
22,880 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Oil - proved reserves:
199.1 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Natural gas - production:
30 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Natural gas - consumption:
30 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
Natural gas - proved reserves:
849.5 million cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

Current account balance:
-$1.38 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
-$1.404 billion (2010 est.)

Exports:
$1.886 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
$1.548 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities:
textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Exports - partners:
Italy 50.8%, Kosovo 6.2%, Turkey 5.9%, Greece 5.4%, China 5.5% (2010 est.)

Imports:
$5.022 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
$4.305 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Italy 28%, Greece 13%, China 6.3%, Turkey 5.6%, Germany 5.6% (2010 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.725 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
$2.541 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Debt - external:
$5.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
$5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates:
leke (ALL) per US dollar -
99.5 (2011 est.)
103.94 (2010 est.)
94.98 (2009)
79.546 (2008)
92.668 (2007)

Communications ::Albania
Telephones - main lines in use:
331,500 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 113
Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.548 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 106

Telephone system:
general assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines teledensity remains low with roughly 10 fixed lines per 100 people; mobile-cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective
domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile-cellular phone service has been available since 1996; by 2010 multiple companies were providing mobile services and mobile teledensity exceeded 130 per 100 persons; Internet broadband services initiated in 2005 but growth has been slow; Internet cafes are popular in Tirana and have started to spread outside the capital
international: country code - 355; submarine cable provides connectivity to Italy, Croatia, and Greece; the Trans-Balkan Line, a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system, provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2009)

Broadcast media:
3 public television networks, one of which transmits by satellite to Albanian-language communities in neighboring countries; more than 60 private television stations operating; many viewers can pick up Italian and Greek TV broadcasts via terrestrial reception; cable TV service is available; 2 public radio networks and roughly 25 private radio stations; several international broadcasters are available (2010)
Internet country code:
.al
Internet hosts:
15,505 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 125
Internet users:
1.3 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 91

Transportation
Airports:
5 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 178
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)
Heliports:
1 (2010)

Pipelines:
gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2010)

Railways:
total: 339 km
country comparison to the world: 117
standard gauge: 339 km 1.435-m gauge (2010)

Roadways:
total: 18,000 km
country comparison to the world: 116
paved: 7,020 km
unpaved: 10,980 km (2002)

Waterways:
41 km (on the Bojana River) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 104

Merchant marine:
total: 25
country comparison to the world: 93
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 23, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)
registered in other countries: 4 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Panama 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Military

Military branches:
Lnad Forces Command, Air Forces Command, Training and Doctrine Command (2012)
Military service age and obligation:
19 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 731,111
females age 16-49: 780,216 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 622,379
females age 16-49: 660,715 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 31,986
female: 29,533 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.49% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99

Transnational Issues
Disputes - international:
none

Illicit drugs:
increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and expanding cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens.    

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